Matched filter technique (MFT) for event detection

The located events were used as the first MFT templates in the study region (Fig. 1a, black thin rectangle). We have applied a two-way 10–30 Hz Butterworth filter to the continuous data from two high-density local network stations, 0286 and 2289 (Fig. 1a), to reduce the influence of the low frequency coda wave of the Tohoku-oki mainshock and aftershocks. We applied the MFT to data from the two stations, following the procedure of Peng and Zhao35. The waveforms of all newly identified events were visually checked to minimize the possibility of spurious detection. The events thus detected were relocated by using P- and S-wave arrivals manually picked on seismograms recorded by at least three nearby seismic stations and were then used as new templates. We also applied MFT to the continuous waveform data recorded from 4 h before the Tohoku-oki earthquake until its occurrence, and confirmed that no event was detected in the Nagano region.

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