The Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices (RSPM)57 were used to assess participants’ mental ability associated with abstract reasoning and has little dependency on language abilities. It consists of 60 items and has been used as an indicator of general intelligence throughout the world59. Chinese psychologists revised the scale’s norms and proved the scale to have good reliability and validity in Chinese sample60.

We used a Chinese revised version of Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Version 1158 to measure participants’ trait impulsivity. The questionnaire has been verified to have good construct convergent, and discriminant validity61. It is consisted of 30 items and has three subscales: motor impulsivity, attentional impulsivity and non-planning impulsivity. It has been adapted to a five-point scale, and the cognitive and unplanned impulsivity subscales are scored in reverse. High scores indicate hyperactivity, inattention and lack of planning.

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