Informed consent was obtained from patients before surgery for specimens to be used for research. Approval by the review board of National University of Singapore and the first affiliated hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University was obtained prior to the commence of the study. Immunohistochemistry was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) sections of HNSCC and breast tumor tissues. Immuno-scoring of clinical samples was performed by 1 pathologist and 1 scientist in a blinded manner based on the nuclear and/or cytoplasmic staining intensity (0, negative; 1, weak; 2, moderate; and 3, strong) and the proportion of stained tumor cells (0–100%). The final immunoreactive score (IRS) was determined by multiplying the intensity score with the fraction of stained cells (0–300). Clinical outcomes were defined by disease-free survival (DFS).

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