Animal studies were conducted in accordance with the National University of Singapore (NUS) Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC). The procedures used in this study were approved under the IACUC protocol. NOD SCID gamma (NSG) mice were obtained from the Center of Animal Resources (CARE) of NUS were bred under specific pathogen-free conditions. The mice were housed under controlled temperature (25 °C) and photoperiods (alternating 12 h of light and dark cycle) and were fed with standard diet. For each group of experiments, mice were age- and sex-matched.

Mice of 6–8 weeks of age were divided into 4–5 mice per group for use in the xenograft model experiment. HK-1 empty vector clone or DUSP16-overexpressing cells were harvested by trypsinization and resuspended in PBS. 0.1 mL of PBS containing 5 × 106 cells was inoculated on the left flank of each mouse. Cisplatin treatment started only when the tumor sizes were 0.125 cm3. The mice were injected intraperitoneally with either cisplatin (3 mg/kg) or an equal volume of PBS once every 3 days over 20 days. The weights and tumor surface areas of individual animals were recorded daily. Tumor surface area was calculated using the formula W × L, where L is the length and W is the width of the tumor. At the end of the treatment, the animals were sacrificed by asphyxiation with CO2. The tumors were excised and the weights of the tumors were recorded. The excised tumors were then fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde for histological analysis.

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