Data regarding COVID-19 were collected from Johns Hopkins GitHub repository Systems Science and Engineering23. The information on governmental measures (school and university closures) were acquired from the UNESCO database24. The climatic parameters reported were taken from the dataset of the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) POWER Project25 and the demographic estimates (population size, land area, population density) were obtained from the United Nations population estimates and from the World Factbook of Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)26.

In order to evaluate the relation of COVID-19 with geo-climatic environment, the world has been divided into five geoclimatic zones, according to the updated Koppen-Geiger classification: polar, cold-temperate, warm- temperate, arid, and equatorial27.

For SARS-Cov-2 analysis, all the UN 193 countries have been taken into account. Among these, 16 small countries, with a population below one million and a density of less than 100 people/km2, as well as 18 countries with insufficient data on COVID-19 have been excluded. Conversely, all 50 states of the United States of America have been considered individually. Therefore, a total of 209 Countries have been included in the present study.

A total of 134,871 data were acquired from the sources mentioned above and inserted in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet (Supplementary Table S2). Thirteen variables have been considered for the analysis and organized into the 3 groups herein reported.

Demographic: population size (number of people), land area (square kilometer—km2), population density (people/km2).

Climatic: climatic zone (one to five), temperature at two meters (degree Celsius—°C), solar irradiation (megajoule/square meter/day—MJ/m2/day), relative humidity (percentage—%), wind speed at two meters (meter per second—m/s), surface pressure (kilopascal—KPa), precipitation (millimeters/day—mm/day).

COVID-19: date of the first confirmed case, number of new weekly cases, and number of active weekly cases.

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