All tissue samples obtained at autopsy were diagnosed histologically by a pathology expert. The tumor size, which was represented by the maximal diameter of the tumor, was measured in CT images that were scanned within ten days of death. DNA was extracted from frozen tumor samples using a QIAAMP DNA MINI KIT (Qiagen) and from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor samples using the QIAAMP DNA FFPE TUMOR TISSUE KIT (Qiagen) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The extracted DNA was stored at − 20 °C until used. The concentration and quality of the DNA were measured using a QUBIT 2.0 FLUOROMETER (Life Technologies) with DSDNA HS ASSAY KITS (Life Technologies) and QIASEQ DNA QUANTIMIZE ARRAY KIT (Qiagen).

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