Statistical significance was calculated using a one-tailed homoscedastic Student’s t-test or Fisher’s test. P-values are indicated in figures and in figure legends. Error bars indicate SD. For all statistical analyses values of P < 0.0001 were accepted as statistically significant, except for supplementary Fig. 9, where the P-values are defined in the relevant legend.

For all experiments presented as representative images, 5-23 biological replicates were performed except for the following: Figs. 4d, ,8a,8a, Supplementary Figs. 4e and 9c, two biological replicates each; Figs. 5e, ,8g,8g, and 9e–i, one biological replicate each; Supplementary Fig. 9d–k, three biological replicates each.

We have complied with all relevant ethical regulations for animal testing and research, including invertebrates.

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