All statistical tests were performed using R ( and SPSS (IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 25.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.). For whole-brain analysis, GM surface was analyzed with a General Linear Model ( to test for the effect of susTN. TIV was included in the model as covariate. Vertex-based p values were corrected using a false discovery rate correction (FDR < 0.05) based on the Benjamini and Hochberg (BH) procedure92. For ROI-based analysis, separated multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) tests were applied to evaluate the impact of preoperative (preopTN) and sustained/chronic tinnitus (susTN) as well as the preoperative hearing impairment (preopHI) on the normalized ROI volumes. Given the known dependency between preopTN, susTN and preopHI19, including these factors in a single MANOVA could bias the results due to multicollinearity. Multivariate outlier in ROI data were excluded using Mahalanobis Distance. MANOVA was follow-up by univariate ANOVAs. Resulting p-values were corrected for multiple comparisons based on FDR (< 0.05). Correlation analysis were based on Pearson’s correlation. Data are shown as mean ± standard deviation (SD). Statistical significance was considered with p < 0.05 for each frequentist statistical test. This study followed the STROBE (STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology) checklist.

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