KrasLSL-G12D/+ (K), Paf−/−; KrasLSL-G12D/+ (PK), KrasLSL-G12D/+; Trp53floxed/floxed (KP), and Paf−/−; KrasLSL-G12D/+; Trp53floxed/floxed (PKP) mice were euthanized at the times after Ad-Cre infection indicated in the figures. Lung tissues were perfused with PBS, fixed with 10% formalin, and embedded in paraffin. Lung tumors were first examined by macroscopic observation of the surface of the whole lung and then by microscopic analysis using sectioned samples stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The total number and burden of K and KP lung tumors were measured in the middle sections of each lung. To measure the total number and burden of PK and PKP lung tumors, the tumor-bearing sections of the lungs were screened, and one 5-μm section from the center of the tumor was used for analysis. For IHC analysis, paraffin-sectioned samples were immunostained according to standard protocols (Wang et al., 2016). The following antibodies were used for immunohistochemistry: PAF (Santa Cruz, G-11), Ki67 (Abcam, ab16667), PCNA (Cell Signaling, 13110), cleaved caspase-3 (Cell Signaling, 9664), and RAS (mutated G12D) (Abcam, ab221163).

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