We employed a 2-D finite difference method in the time domain with a rotated staggered grid23, which can accurately calculate seismic wave propagation in media with high-impedance contrast, such as the interfaces between air, fluid, and rock. An absorbing boundary condition25 was introduced to the lateral and bottom boundaries. White noise was inputted to normal stress components of 96 points, which were randomly selected from the space between the surface and a depth of 60 m. The white noise was synthesized from the frequency spectra, which have the same amplitude and random phases against the frequency using a fast Fourier transform. A 46-s long record was synthesized. Detail of the calculation is described in the preceding studies7,26.

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