Total RNAs were isolated using acid guanidinium thiocyanate–phenol reagent, as previously described11. cDNA was synthesized using the Verso cDNA Kit (Thermo Fisher Scientific) with random hexamer primers. qPCR assays were performed using the ViiA7 Real-Time PCR System, as previously described 11. The relative gene expression levels were quantified with qPCR, followed by normalization to ribosomal protein lateral stalk subunit P0 (Rplp0) as the internal control gene. The primers used for this analysis were listed in Supplementary Table 5.

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