The CT volumes were first re-sampled via a cubic interpolation, to obtain a cubic voxel of 0.5 mm side, which makes the geometric features rotationally invariant. Then, a thresholding on radiodensity values (Hounsfield Units, HU) was performed to detect the metal objects within the CT volume. As shown in Fig. 3, all metal objects with high attenuation coefficients were identified by using an HU threshold of 2500. (It is greater than the typical HU values of compact bone.) This operation identified the electrodes, but also wires, stitches, connectors, metal dental fillings. Therefore, the thresholding was not able to selectively identify the electrodes. A large part of the wires and stitches were located outside patients’ head.

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