Before validate the model, we tested the in situ ZSD dataset for normal distribution using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K–S) test. The modeled ZSD were assessed and validated using the in-situ collected data. The accuracy assessment of ZSD algorithms was performed using Root Mean Square difference (RMSD, Equation (3)), Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE, Equation (4)), Bias (Equation (5)), and Nash–Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (NSE, Equation (6)).

where, yiE is the estimated value for the i observation; yiM is the measured value for the i observation; ymax is the maximum measured value; ymin is the minimum measured value, and yaverageM is the average of measured values.

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