Data were analyzed using Metaprop package of Stata software which is a statistical program used to perform meta-analyses of proportions in Stata. During the analysis, the Freeman Tukey double arcsine transformation (ftt) was enabled to include proportions close to 0 and 1 [30]. This program computes the weighted pooled estimate and then performs back-transformation on the pooled estimate. The time-transformed prevalence weighted very slightly towards 50%, which enable 0 prevalence studies included in the analysis [31]. When there is evidence of a cross-study heterogeneity, the random-effects model is recommended for analysis [32]. In this case, the DerSimonian and Laird method is most commonly used [33]. The presence of heterogeneity among studies is checked using I2 test statistics, which estimates the presence of observed differences between studies due to heterogeneity. The I2 value can range from 0 to 100%, and 0% indicates the absence of heterogeneity, whereas 100% is a definitive indicator of significant heterogeneity. The 25%, 50%, and 75% values represent low, medium, and high heterogeneities between studies, respectively [34]. Besides, a p value of <0.05 is used to declare the presence of heterogeneity [35]. In this meta-analysis, the I2 value was high (97.77%), which is >75%, an indication of considerable heterogeneity. Due to this reason, the analysis conducted using a random-effects model at 95% CI as opposed to the fixed effects model to adjust the observed variability among studies. The possible sources of heterogeneity are investigated through subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, and meta-regression. The visual inspection of funnel plots and Egger's weighted statistics were used to investigate the presence of publication bias and small study effects. All the data management and statistical analysis performed using Stata software version 16.0 (StataCorp LLC College Station TX 77845, USA for windows version).

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