TI-GI CMV disease was defined as an evidence of CMV infection either from (1) typical CMV cytopathic change demonstrated on hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining or (2) positive staining for CMV antigen by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the tissue specimens from gastrointestinal tract (i.e., esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and colon), in which the specimens were obtained from surgical resection or gastrointestinal endoscopy with biopsy. All tissue histology specimens were reviewed by single clinical pathologist (P.W.) who was blinded to clinical characteristics of the patients to confirm the diagnosis of TI-GI CMV before including the patients into the analysis.

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