2',7'-Dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFDA) (Sigma-Aldrich, USA) was used to measure the intracellular peroxides to assess the protective effect of RA against ROS formation in ER stress-induced endothelial cells. In brief, the endothelial cells were pretreated with RA (5 and 10 μM) for 24 h followed by exposure with 2 μM TPG for 2 h. Then, the cells were treated with DCFDA solution (25 μM) for 15 min, and the fluorescence was measured using flow cytometer (BD Biosciences, CA, USA) at 502 nm excitation and 550 nm emission wavelength.

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