Proteins were extracted from lung tissues, and their concentrations were measured using the Bradford assay. Proteins were separated using a polyacrylamide gel followed by transfer to a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane. The PVDF membrane was incubated with primary antibodies including iNOS, HO-1, NF-κB, Bax, and Bcl-xL (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) overnight at 4°C, followed by incubation with the appropriate secondary antibodies (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Oregon, USA). An enhanced chemiluminescence reagent (Santa Cruz Biotechnology Oregon, USA) was then added to visualize the proteins.

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