All participants underwent a questionnaire survey, a physical examination, a routine blood test, and a biochemical index evaluation. The questionnaire survey collected each patient's basic information, including gender, age, daily lifestyle habits (i.e., alcohol consumption and smoking), medication usage, and duration of diabetes. The physical examination measured the patient's height, weight, and blood pressure; body mass indices (BMI) were calculated. Each patient's fasting blood was collected in the morning. The patients' postprandial blood was collected two hours after breakfast. The routine blood test evaluated white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil (N), and lymphocyte (L) counts; the neutrophil to lymphocytes ratio (NLR), and the red blood cell distribution width (RDW). The biochemical index evaluation assayed levels of glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum creatinine (SCr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid (UA), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), and postprandial blood glucose (PBG).

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