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Regarding content analysis, for each item in the scale, the mean, standard deviation, and range were calculated. Floor and ceiling effects exceeding 15% were considered to be significant.17 Cronbach’s alpha was used to evaluate internal consistency, and >0.8 were considered as good internal consistency. The test–retest reliability was measured by comparing responses to the two different administrations of CSAP-S. It was assessed by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). An ICC value between 0.7 and 0.8 indicates good reliability, and more than 0.8 indicates excellent reliability.18 Construct validity was evaluated through a principal component analysis (PCA) using varimax rotation. The Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin (KMO) measure of sampling adequacy and the Bartlett’s test of sphericity were conducted prior to running the analysis.10 Also, CSAP-S items were compared with relevant dimensions from well validated Chinese version of 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36)19 and Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22)20 questionnaires. They were sent to the patients with CSAP-S concomitantly. Correlation was made using Pearson correlation coefficients. A Pearson correlation coefficient of more than 0.75 is considered excellent, 0.5 to 0.75 as good, 0.25 to 0.5 as fair, and less than 0.25 as poor. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL). Mean values were reported with standard deviation (SD), and ICC values were presented with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant.

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