Categorical variables were expressed as frequency and percentage, while quantitative variables were expressed as mean ± standard deviation; quantitative variables with non-normal distribution were described using median and quartiles. A Kolmogorov–Smirnov test was used to analyze the normal distribution of all quantitative variables. A Pearson Chi-Squared test was used for between-group comparisons of categorical variables. Either an independent two-sample t-test or the Mann–Whitney U test was performed for between-group comparisons of quantitative variables. Either a one-way analysis of variance or multivariate logistic regression was performed to compare data from more than 2 groups. The statistical package SPSS version 16.0. (IBM Corporation, Somers, NY) was used for all statistical analyses. P < .05 was considered statistically significant.

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