Indicators used in this study included sex, age, body mass index (BMI), seasonal variation, and time to hospitalization as well as history of hypertension, diabetes, smoking, drinking, stroke, and/or oral anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet drug use. Patients’ physical condition (e.g., liver, renal, and blood coagulation functioning) as well as side and location of bleeding were also included. Finally, inpatient days and inpatient costs were also included. Acute injury severity was functionally assessed using the GCS score[7] at the time of hospital admission. Patient outcomes were evaluated using the modified Rankin scale (mRS)[7] at 30 days after onset. Definitions for smoking and drinking history were as follows:

Smoking history[8]: Patients who smoked every day for more than 6 months were identified as smokers.

Drinking history[9]: patients who drank alcohol more than once a week in the past year were identified as alcohol drinkers.

According to the Chinese meteorological management system, the 4 seasons in Chengdu were classified as follows: winter (December to February), spring (March to May), summer (June to August), and autumn (September to November). Patients’ onset time was classified according to these 4 seasonal definitions.

The location of the cerebral hemorrhage was classified as:

left, right, and bilateral according to lateral classification;

according to location (divided into basal nucleus, thalamus, putamen, brain stem, cerebellum, caudate nucleus, primary ventricle, cerebral lobe (frontal, temporal, occipital, or parietal lobe), or mixed (2 or more cerebral lobes with evidence of hemorrhage).

If bleeding occurred in 2 or more sites, the hemorrhage was classified as ’multiple sites’.

Acute injury severity was functionally assessed by the GCS score at the time of hospital admission and was defined as follows: mild (GCS 13–15), moderate (GCS 9–12), or severe (GCS 3–8). During the 30-day follow-up, the modified Rankin scale (mRS) was used to evaluate patient prognosis as follows: 0 (no symptoms);

(no significant disability; able to carry out all usual activities, despite some symptoms);

(slight disability; able to look after one's affairs without assistance, but unable to carry out all previous activities);

(moderate disability; requires some help, but able to walk unassisted);

(moderately severe disability; unable to attend to one's own bodily needs without assistance and unable to walk unassisted);

(severe disability; requires constant nursing care and attention, bedridden, incontinent);


The patients’ neurological status (initial and 30th day after hemorrhage onset) was assessed using the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score, respectively.

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