Flow rate and pressures were measured by flow sensors and pressure transducers. At each experiment, pressure drops were calculated by the following formulas as suggested by Ündar`s group:10

Oxygenator pressure drop (OPD)=pre-oxygenator pressure – post-oxygenator pressure;

Circuit pressure drop (CPD)=pre-oxygenator pressure – pre-clamp pressure.

Shepard`s principle was applied to quantitatively estimate the hemodynamic energies induced by pulsatile flow as we described previously,9 and these parameters were calculated:

EEP=ʃQpdt/ʃQdt, where Q represents the blood flow (mL/second), p stands for the instant arterial pressure (mmHg), and t is the time (second);

SHE=1332 (EEP − MAP) (ergs/cm3), where mean arterial pressure is abbreviated as MAP.

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