A Chi-Squared test was used to assess the difference of demographic characteristics between the CKD cohort and comparison cohort from 2000 to 2012. A t-test was employed to assess the difference of the mean OPD visit for ophthalmology between 2 cohorts. Continuous variables, such as age and follow-up time, were shown as mean and standard deviation (SD) and analyzed using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. We estimated the cumulative incidences of RVD for both the CKD and comparison cohorts using the Kaplan–Meier method, and examined the difference between the 2 curves using the log-rank test. A multivariable Cox model was adjusted for continuous age, gender, comorbidities, and OPD visits for ophthalmology before the index date. Univariate and multivariable Cox proportional regression analysis measuring hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to assess the association between CKD and the risk of developing RVD. The incidence density rate of RVD (per-1000 years) was calculated for CKD cohort and comparison cohort. The risk of RVD in the CKD and comparison cohorts was stratified by age group, gender, and comorbidities, using Cox proportional hazard regression. All analyses were performed using SAS statistical software, version 9.4 for Windows (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). The level of significance was set at P < .05 at two-tailed test. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used for verification of average age and follow-up time.

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