Statistical heterogeneity between included studies will be assessed strictly according to the criteria (P > .1 and I2 < 50%) and displayed as a forest plot. When P > .1 and I2 < 50%, lower heterogeneity was analyzed using a fixed-effects model; when P < .1 and I2 > 50%, higher heterogeneity was analyzed using a random-effects model. When the included studies’ heterogeneity is significant, we will choose subgroup analysis or sensitivity analysis to search for possible sources clinically and methodologically.

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