The data of patients diagnosed with primary esophageal cancer in 1973 to 2016 were extracted from the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) database by using SEER∗Stat version 8.3.5 (https://seer.cancer.gov/seerstat/). The SEER database, established by the NCI in 1973, is one of the major sources of cancer data in the United States, and it has a large sample size, a wide population coverage, and a high data accuracy.

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