A comprehensive search was conducted on the MEDLINE electronic database and ProQuest grey literature, from inception up until the February 20, 2020. The search was conducted by two independent reviewers (TMN and BBN), while a third reviewer (PVD) was consulted for arbitration in cases of disagreements. The search strategy was adapted to MEDLINE databases without any language restrictions using medical subjects heading (MeSH) terms and keywords such as “programmed cell death-1,” “T-cell exhaustion,” “type 2 diabetes mellitus,” and their respective synonyms and associated words or phrases. A detailed search strategy is provided as a supplementary file (see Table 1S, Supplemental Content, which illustrates the search strategy used). In addition to scanning reference lists of retrieved studies, the ProQuest grey literature database was also searched for relevant studies. The Mendeley reference manager software (Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands) was used to manage the reference list and to remove study duplicates.

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