In order to achieve a consistency (at least 80%) of extracted items, the data extractors will extract data from a sample of eligible studies. Results of the pilot extraction will be discussed among review authors and extractors. Two independent reviewers will extract data with a predefined extraction template, which includes the following items: study characteristics such as the first author, publication year, study design, follow-up period; patient demographic details such as patients’ number, average age, and gender ratio. The outcomes include all-cause mortality and hospitalization for cardiac or/and respiratory causes; left ventricular structure and function; and functional scores. The original authors will be contacted to request missing data where necessary. Extracted information will be cross-checked by 2 independent reviewers. Any disagreements will be discussed and resolved in discussion with a third reviewer.

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