According to the ministry of health of the People's Republic of China “hospital infection diagnosis standard 2001,”[20] HAP is defined as the lower respiratory infection that develops in a hospitalized patient after 48 hours of admission, and was not present or incubating at the time of admission. First, when the clinicians discover the HAP, they can report it to the infection control department through the NI information system. Then, 2 experienced hospital infection professionals will judge whether it is an NI according to the standard. When the 2 people disagree, the third professional will make the final decision. Besides, the system will give an early warning of possible NI cases according to the patient's temperature, microbial culture, inflammatory indicators, and the use of antibiotics. The professionals of infection control will take the initiative to deal with the early warnings and judge whether they are NIs or not. Through this system, the inpatient information and NI information can be obtained timely and accurately.

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