In order to achieve a consistency (at least 80%) of risk of bias assessment, the risk of bias assessors will pre-assess a sample of eligible studies. Results of the pilot risk of bias will be discussed among review authors and assessors. Two independent reviewers will assess the risk of bias of the included studies at study level. We will follow the guidance in the latest version of Cochrane Handbook for systematic reviews of interventions when choosing and using tools to assessing risk of bias for randomized trials (version 2 of the Cochrane risk of bias tool for randomized trials, RoB 2) and nonrandomized trials (the Risk Of Bias In Non-randomized Studies of Interventions, ROBINS-I tool). Any disagreements will be discussed and resolved in discussion with a third reviewer. Studies with a high risk of bias or unclear bias will be given less weight in our data synthesis.

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