A cross-sectional study was performed between January 2017 and December 2017.

Initial sample participant number was 30 PHIV patients and 33 HIV-, but 13 participants were excluded (5 PHIV and 8 HIV- controls) due to outlier MRI image quality markers when compared with the sample average quality-assurance measurements.

Twenty-five PHIV patients and 25 HIV- peers, matched by age, sex, educational level, and socioeconomic status participated in a cross-sectional study. Data were collected at 5 pediatric research centers that belong to the CoRISpe (Spanish National Cohort of Pediatric HIV) group.[19]

Patients with current brain infection, neurological or psychiatric disorder, or any congenital abnormality were not included in the sample. Nonetheless, 3 patients with history of encephalopathy were included since they all had normal neuropsychological performances at assessment.

The HIV- peers were selected from voluntary recruitment through the advertising of the study.

The Institutional Review Boards of each research center approved the study, and a written, informed consent was obtained from all participants in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration. When participants were underage, an assent form was signed by themselves, and their legal guardians provided the informed consent.

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