The participant, intervention, comparison, outcome, time, and study design (PICOTS) criteria was used to establish study inclusion criteria.

We will include all randomized controlled trials of fasting or caloric restricted diets in human subjects. No restrictions on language.

All included cases must be healthy adults or diseased patients (over 18 years old). No restrictions about sex and ethnicity was applied in the study population.

Fasting or caloric restriction diets will be used as interventions.

Classical caloric restriction, in which daily caloric intake is typically decreased;

Fasting, intermittent or periodic full or partial fasting, that is a periodic, full-or multiday decrease in food intake, usually accompanied by a decrease in energy intake; or fasting without decreasing in energy intake, enough energy is taken in within the limited time window, thereby prolonging the fasting time.

In the same original study, the subjects on a normal diet, and the rest of the health conditions were the same as those of the experimental group.

Inflammatory factors in the circulating blood will be the primary outcome reflecting the level of inflammation in humans. The main markers of inflammation include:IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and so on. Secondary results includes the total WBC and lymphocyte counts, ICAM-1, leptin, etc.

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