Hypoalbuminemia was defined by serum levels <35 g/L. Anaemia was defined as a haemoglobin (Hb) level <130 g/L in men and <120 g/L in women, and the anaemia severity was classified as mild (Hb > 110 g/L), moderate (Hb between 80 and 110 g/L), and severe (Hb < 80 g/L).16 The vitamin B12 deficiency and folate deficiency were defined by serum levels <203 pg/mL and <4 ng/mL, respectively.17 The iron deficiency was defined as a ferritin level <30 ng/mL.18 Microcytic hypochromic anaemia was defined by a mean corpuscular volume (MCV) <80 fl, a mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) <26 g/dL, and a mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) <32%. Normocytic anaemia was defined as 80 ≤ MCV ≤ 100 fl, 26 ≤ MCH ≤ 32 g/dL, and 32% ≤ MCHC ≤ 35%. Macrocytic anaemia was defined as MCV >100 fl, MCH >32 g/dL, and MCHC >35%.

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