Data analysis was performed using the SPSS program (version 22; SPSS, Inc., an IBM Company, Chicago, IL, USA). The Shapiro–Wilk test was used for normality testing. All continuous variables were not normally distributed. The Mann–Whitney U-test, chi-square test and binary logistic regression analysis were used. A multivariate logistic regression model was developed to test the associations between OHL and NRT and other potential covariates. All analyses were two-sided with a 95% confidence interval.

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