Simultaneous monitoring of multiple biosignals
This protocol is extracted from research article:
Leaf-inspired homeostatic cellulose biosensors
Sci Adv, Apr 16, 2021; DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abe7432

To decode the drowsy, awake, or movement state of the user, multiple EP signals were simultaneously measured. To record the EEG, ECG, and EMG signals simultaneously, AFz and right mastoid positions served as the ground and reference electrodes, respectively. The sensors recorded the signals on Cz and FCz channels for EEG, on the right forearm for EMG, and on the left forearm for ECG.

For the detection of movement intention, a handgrip was used as an application. The eight users grabbed the handgrip with their right hand and attempted a grip 20 times at an interval of 3 s produced by a metronome. For MRCP analysis, downsampling of 100 Hz and a filter of 0.1 to 1 Hz were applied (42). EEG and EMG data were also segmented from 0 to 3000 ms with respect to stimulus onset. Average MRCP and EMG were compared using time-amplitude analysis.

To monitor the drowsy state, nine individuals were instructed to close the eyes for approximately 15 min and allowed to drowse in a soft armrest chair. The laboratory light was turned off and the room was kept quiet. Nine individuals participated in this experiment.

In addition, experiments for single EMG and ECG measurements based on our previous study (12) are reported in fig. S6 (A to C). The average impedance of CSs across 14 individuals was 18.9 ± 9.2 kilohms on the wrist for ECG and 24.8 ± 9.5 kilohms on the arm for EMG.

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