Animal experiments were conducted according to the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals issued by the Institutional Animal Ethical Care Committee of Shenyang Pharmaceutical University. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (220 to 250 g) were intravenously administered free CPT, CSSP NPs, or CP NPs (2 mg kg−1, CPT equivalent) (n = 3). Blood samples were then collected at 0.083, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hours after injection, and the blood in heparin tubes was centrifuged to obtain the plasma. The plasma samples were incubated with organic alkali to liberate CPT from prodrug form. After protein precipitation, the plasma concentrations of total CPT were measured by using a microplate reader (BioTek, USA) (excitation, 365 nm; emission, 430 nm).

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