All statistical analyses were performed using Statistical Analysis Software version 9.3 (Cary, NC) defining statistical significance as P < .05. All nonmissing observations were used in statistical testing. For data that took the form of proportions, overall differences were evaluated using a χ2 test, and multiple comparisons between individual pairs were done with the Marascuilo procedure. The difference between the typically developing and autism spectrum disorder groups with respect to interval-scaled measures was tested with a Student t test and reported using 95% confidence intervals. Because of the ordinal nature of the Northeastern State University College of Optometry measures, a Wilcoxon rank test was used to test the difference between the typically developing and autism spectrum disorder groups. Similarly, a Kruskal-Wallis test was used to test the difference in Northeastern State University College of Optometry Oculomotor Test measures among autism spectrum disorder subgroups. Given the small number of subjects in each autism spectrum disorder subgroup, post hoc power analyses were completed assuming an α level of 0.05 and two-sided hypothesis using PASS 2020 (NCSS Statistical Software, Kaysville, UT). Study power was greater than 80% for all omnibus comparisons of the three subgroups, assuming a between-group effect size of 0.75. Not surprisingly, the effect size that can be observed in pairwise comparisons of autism spectrum disorder subjects who are nonverbal and those who use short words to communicate is much higher at 1.5 (a large effect).

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