2.3. Data extraction and quality assessment

Included studies were checked independently by two investigators, and disagreements were resolved by a third investigator. The following data were extracted: study characteristics, demographic data, research period, numbers of COVID-19 patients using IMV or NIV or HFNC or ECMO, detailed data of IMV application (including duration of IMV, tidal volume, compliance, FiO2, positive end expiratory pressure [PEEP], PaO2/FiO2 ratio, proportion of ventilator associated pneumonia, ratio of prone position in IMV) and clinical outcomes. The data shown as median and interquartile range were transformed into mean and standard deviation (SD) according to the formula below (http://www.math.hkbu.edu.hk/∼tongt/papers/median_2mean.html). The relationship of respiratory supports with clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients in ICU was evaluated between survival and non-survival group.

According to the Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS), the quality of studies was assessed through three aspects (selection, comparability and outcomes). Scores range from 0 to 9, and studies with the score ≥6 were classified as high-quality studies.

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