For scoring the avoidance behavior on Bt 9 cm PFM plates were prepared as described above for the survival assays, but with a 30 μl spot of the bacterial mixture in the middle. For Bt exposure mild pathogen concentrations were chosen in order to challenge, but not to kill the worms. Ten synchronized L4 hermaphrodites were picked onto each bacterial spot in the middle of the plate at time point 0 hours post infection (hpi) and the worms residing on that spot were scored every second hour. The leaving index was calculated as (total number of worms—worms on bacterial spot) / total number of worms. Dead individuals were excluded from the total number of worms per plate.

For scoring the pumping rate on Bt PFM plates were prepared as described above for the survival assays. For Bt exposure a mild pathogen concentration was chosen. Ten synchronized L4 hermaphrodites were pipetted onto each plate to ensure that five worms are on the spot by the time the pumping rate was scored. After 6 and 24 h of exposure to Bt or OP50, the pumping of five worms per plate was counted for a period of 20 s. A total of four plates for each treatment was scored.

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