The eligible studies were divided into 3 groups according to systemic treatment: chemotherapy with targeted therapy, chemotherapy alone, and high-dose chemotherapy, defined as chemotherapy requiring hematopoietic stem cell support (HSCS) regardless of chemotherapy dosage. Chemotherapy administered with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (or another agent in the same group) without HSCS was not classified as high-dose chemotherapy. Currently, the high-dose chemotherapy is not a standard treatment for IBC, we separately reported data in S1 Appendix.

For each group, we calculated a weighted-average pCR rate, defined as the total number of patients achieving pCR across all studies in the group divided by the total number of patients across all studies in the group. Confidence intervals (CIs) for proportions were computed using the method of Clopper and Pearson.

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