Questionnaires were administered to enrolled mothers during the first (T1) and second/third trimester (T2). The T2 questionnaire included questions about the educational attainments of mothers and fathers. They were categorized as ≤ 9 years (junior high school: EDC1), 10–12 years (high school: EDC2), 13–15 years (technical junior college, technical/vocational college, or associate degree: EDC3), or ≥ 16 years (bachelor’s degree or postgraduate degree: EDC4).

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