Wheezing (primary outcome) and doctor-diagnosed (secondary outcome: additional analysis) asthma at the 3-year questionnaire were outcomes. In the primary outcome, we used the Japanese translation of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire for 6-7-year children [1719]. Caregivers were asked, “Has your child ever had wheezing or whistling in the chest at any time in the past?” If yes, then they were asked “Has your child had wheezing or whistling in the chest in the last 12 months (yes or no)?" If yes, we defined the children as wheezing positive at 3-years. In the secondary outcome, caregivers were also asked, “Has your child had any diseases which a medical doctor diagnosed since 2-years age?” If they had asthma and we checked whether they had any other diseases or “no diseases,” we defined the children as negative of doctor-diagnosed asthma. If any diseases and diseases were unchecked, the outcome of doctor-diagnosed asthma was considered as a missing value.

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