From the one-dimensional perspective, self-esteem is considered a favourable or unfavourable attitude that adolescents have about themselves. The Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSE) [46] was used. This instrument consists of 10 items (e.g., “I take a positive attitude toward myself”), scored on a 4-point Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree, 4 = strongly agree). Previous studies with Spanish adolescents showed adequate psychometric properties of the instrument (α = .87) [47]. The reliability index in our sample was adequate (α = .82).

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