The statistical analysis was performed to verify a deviation of QDDD between administration routes and number of active ingredients using R Statistical Software (version 4.0.3; R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria). A p-value ≤ 0.05 was set as the significance level. The data were checked for normal distribution by Shapiro tests. The difference between DDDvet and DDDjp values was examined using the Wilcoxon test for paired samples. The effects of the administration routes and the number of active ingredients in the product were examined using a Mann-Whitney U test.

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