Average BMD is expressed in milligrams per cubic centimeter of calcium hydroxyapatite. For the BMD of the spinal trabecular bone, thresholds of 120 mg/cm3 for osteopenia (equivalent to a DXA T-score of −1.0 standard deviation [SD]) and 80 mg/cm3 for osteoporosis (equivalent to a DXA T-score of −2.5 SD) were suggested by the International Society for Clinical Densitometry in 2007 [21] and by the American College of Radiology in 2008 [22].

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