QCT measurements were obtained with a Brilliance 64- slice CT scanner (Philips, Israel) with a solid Mindways QCT phantom (Mindways Software Inc., Austin, TX, USA). Patients were scanned at 120 kVp, 150 mA s, with exposure based on height and weight. Contiguous series of CT images were acquired with a 2.5-mm slice thickness and 2.5-mm spacing between images. Vertebrae from L1 to L4 were scanned in the supine position. Images were analyzed using the Mindways software. Elliptical regions of interest were automatically placed in the midplane of four vertebral bodies (L1–L4) in the trabecular bone, avoiding the cortical bone of the vertebrae. Fractured vertebrae were excluded from measurement.

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