We included 86,209 women with their first pregnancy ending in a live birth within the DNBC as the index pregnancy. Women were excluded due to occurrence of the following before start of follow-up (18 months postpartum): death (n = 27); emigration (n = 571); and any diagnosis of either hypertension, ischemic heart disease, stroke, or other CVDs (n = 849) (Fig 1). Furthermore, 3,268 women who had had a subsequent birth and 9,189 women who were pregnant (>1-month duration) within 18 months postpartum were excluded as this may have affected their weight. Also, 5,743 women who were missing prepregnancy BMI values were excluded as were women who did not participate in the 18 months postpartum interview (17,721 women) or did not provide weight at that time (875 women). Thus, our final study population included 47,966 mothers.

CVD, cardiovascular disease; DNBC, Danish National Birth Cohort.

All participants provided written informed consent. The DNBC was approved by the Scientific Ethic Committee in Denmark and the Danish Data Protection Agency, which also approved the present study. This study is reported according to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) guideline (S1 STROBE Checklist).

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