Total RNA was extracted from the right mandibles using Trizol reagent (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) following the manufacturer’s procedure. RNA samples were further purified using an RNeasy Mini kit (Qiagen, Germantown, MD, USA) and the RNA yields were measured using a NanoDrop 1000 (Thermo Fisher Scientific, CA, USA). The cDNA was synthesized from 500 ng of total RNA with SuperScript VILO cDNA synthesis kit (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA). The qPCR reaction was performed using the Luna Universal qPCR Master Mix (New England Biolabs) and was conducted at 60°C for 40 cycles using CFX96TM Optics Module (Bio-Rad, CA, USA). Gene expression profiles were normalized to GAPDH. The oligonucleotide primers for qPCR are shown in Supplementary S1 Table.

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