μCT was used to analyze cortical and cancellous bone microarchitecture using a desktop μCT35, (Scanco Medical, Basserdorf, Switzerland) in accordance with recommended guidelines [17]. Buccal-lingual cross slices of the first mandibular molars were scanned at 7 μm isotropic voxel size, 73 kVp, and 113 μA. Mandibular bone scans were subjected to Gaussian filtration and segmentation and the threshold was set at 33% of the maximal gray scale value. For cortical bone, cross-sectional volume (mm3), cortical volume (mm3), marrow volume (mm3), cortical thickness (mm), and bone mineral density (BMD, mgHA/cm2) were determined. Cancellous bone volume (BV/TV, %), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th, mm), trabecular number (Tb.N, /mm), trabecular separation (Tb.Sp, mm), structure model index (SMI), and bone mineral density (mgHA/cm2) were analyzed.

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