A mechanical shaker was purchased from Shanghai Shiping Experimental Equipment Co., Ltd. (SPH-21B, Shanghai, China). A ten-thousandth electronic balance was provided by Ohaus International Trading (Shanghai) Co., Ltd. (AR2140, Shanghai, China). A microplate reader was purchased from ThermoFisher Scientific Inc. (MK3, Waltham, MA). HPLC-MS/MS was performed on a 1290 Infinity ultra-high-performance liquid chromatograph (UHPLC) system (Agilent Technologies Inc., Santa Clara, CA, USA) coupled to a 6460 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (QQQ) equipped with a Jet Stream ion source (Agilent Technologies Inc., Santa Clara, CA, USA). The UPT-based biosensor was obtained from Beijing Hotgen Biotech Co., Ltd. (UPT-3A, Beijing, China).

ELISA kits for AFB1, ZEN and DON quantification were provided by Romer Labs (MO, USA). UCP immunoassay kits for AFB1, ZEN and DON quantification were provided by Beijing Hotgen Biotech Co., Ltd. (Beijing, China). Standard solutions of AFB1, ZEN and DON were purchased from Pribolab Biological Technical Company (Qingdao, China). Water was purified using a Milli-Q system (Millipore Corporation, Bedford, MA). All other chemicals and solvents were of HPLC grade.

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