This retrospective study was conducted on male Egyptian participants with or without COVID-19 at Fayoum University Hospital (Fayoum, Egypt), from May 11, 2020, to June 18, 2020. One hundred and ninety-seven male participants aged 22 to 75 years, with a median age of 40 years (interquartile range [IQR], 30–50), were participated in this study. We considered male subjects only to neglect the effect of fluctuation of female’s menstrual cycle that may affect some of the clinical laboratory tests as creatine kinase, c-reactive protein, white blood cell, and others [9]. Of 197 suspected male cases, 171 (86.8%) patients were positive for COVID-19, and 26 (13.2%) were negative. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected by a health care professional and tested for COVID-19 by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). The COVID-19 patients were divided into two groups, comprising 111 (64.9%) patients diagnosed with ARDS and 60 (35.1%) with non-ARDS. Blood samples from each adult male patient were collected and used for hematological investigations.

This study was performed in accordance with the ethical principles of the 1975 Declaration of Helsinki and approved by the Ethics Committee of Fayoum University Hospital, and written informed consent was obtained from each patient before clinical and laboratory investigations for the involvement of anonymous patients’ data in scientific research for the current retrospective study.

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